A few thoughts about bulkheads.

Environmental Insight With a Touch of Real Science
by Don Flora (a real scientist)

The present state of Puget Sound’s shore is the sum of myriad small biologic and physical disasters across several millennia. Beaches and their biota have washed away, waves and currents have etched the banks, backshores have collapsed, burying intertidal habitats and carrying upshore habitats to oblivion. Every shoreline reach has been pummeled.

People and their defenses are numerous beside Puget Sound. Repeating practices from around the world, many shore residents have installed protective shields against bank erosion. Nine persistent apprehensions about residential bulkheads are examined. For most there remains a dearth of impact discovery and measurement. Of the nine concerns eight appear to be resolved by current rules and practice that put shore protection tightly against banks. Harm from the other matter, retarded downdrift sediment, (a, below) is strangely unsupported by quantitative research….

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