Biological Effects of Shoreline Armoring in Puget Sound

Human alteration of Puget Sound shorelines is extensive yet its biological consequences are largely unknown, in part because research and monitoring of the Puget Sound ecosystem (1) has usually not included anthropogenic disturbances such as shoreline armoring as explicit factors in sampling design and data analysis, (2) tends to not make direct measures of biological condition a top priority, and (3) has rarely sampled across the full range of natural physical and biological conditions within the system.

Many of these results are equivocal and no large-scale biological field studies have resolved the uncertainty.

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